An automated meta-analysis of 553 studies
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    Studies associated with the feature "language"

    Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: an ER-fMRI studyWang Y, Xue G, Chen C, Xue F, Dong QNeuroImage0.022
    Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?Groussard M, Viader F, Hubert V, Landeau B, Abbas A, Desgranges B, Eustache F, Platel HNeuroImage0.0016
    Broca's region subserves imagery of motion: a combined cytoarchitectonic and fMRI studyBinkofski F, Amunts K, Stephan KM, Posse S, Schormann T, Freund HJ, Zilles K, Seitz RJHuman Brain Mapping0.0011
    Limitations to plasticity of language network reorganization in localization related epilepsyMbwana J, Berl MM, Ritzl EK, Rosenberger L, Mayo J, Weinstein S, Conry JA, Pearl PL, Shamim S, Moore EN, Sato S, Vezina LG, Theodore WH, Gaillard WDBrain0.0101
    The impact of semantic reference on word class: an fMRI study of action and object namingSaccuman MC, Cappa SF, Bates EA, Arevalo A, Della Rosa P, Danna M, Perani DNeuroImage0.0014
    Identifying bilingual semantic neural representations across languagesBuchweitz A, Shinkareva SV, Mason RA, Mitchell TM, Just MABrain and Language0.0137
    Evidence of fronto-temporal interactions for strategic inference processes during language comprehensionChow HM, Kaup B, Raabe M, Greenlee MWNeuroImage0.0028
    Impairments of speech fluency in Lewy body spectrum disorderAsh S, McMillan C, Gross RG, Cook P, Gunawardena D, Morgan B, Boller A, Siderowf A, Grossman MBrain and Language0.0032
    Volumetric and shape analysis of the thalamus in first-episode schizophreniaCoscia DM, Narr KL, Robinson DG, Hamilton LS, Sevy S, Burdick KE, Gunduz-Bruce H, McCormack J, Bilder RM, Szeszko PRHuman Brain Mapping0.0018
    Spatial language processing in the blind: evidence for a supramodal representation and cortical reorganizationStruiksma ME, Noordzij ML, Neggers SF, Bosker WM, Postma APLoS ONE0.0077
    Cultural and linguistic effects on neural bases of 'Theory of Mind' in American and Japanese childrenKobayashi C, Glover GH, Temple EBrain Research0.0022
    Event segmentation in a visual language: neural bases of processing American Sign Language predicatesMalaia E, Ranaweera R, Wilbur RB, Talavage TMNeuroImage0.0051
    Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humorWatson KK, Matthews BJ, Allman JMCerebral Cortex0.0037
    Neural systems for sign language production: mechanisms supporting lexical selection, phonological encoding, and articulationSan Jose-Robertson L, Corina DP, Ackerman D, Guillemin A, Braun ARHuman Brain Mapping0.0071
    The dynamics of deductive reasoning: an fMRI investigationRodriguez-Moreno D, Hirsch JNeuropsychologia0.0033
    Reduced language lateralization in first-episode schizophrenia: an fMRI index of functional asymmetryBleich-Cohen M, Hendler T, Kotler M, Strous RDPsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging0.008
    Language lateralization in unmedicated patients during an acute episode of schizophrenia: a functional MRI studyWeiss EM, Hofer A, Golaszewski S, Siedentopf C, Felber S, Fleischhacker WWPsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging0.0089
    Lateral differences in the default mode network in healthy controls and patients with schizophreniaSwanson N, Eichele T, Pearlson G, Kiehl K, Yu Q, Calhoun VDHuman Brain Mapping0.002
    Multiple routes from occipital to temporal cortices during readingRichardson FM, Seghier ML, Leff AP, Thomas MS, Price CJThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0037
    Brain structure predicts the learning of foreign speech soundsGolestani N, Molko N, Dehaene S, LeBihan D, Pallier CCerebral Cortex0.0042
    Children and adolescents with chronic cerebellar lesions show no clinically relevant signs of aphasia or neglectRichter S, Schoch B, Kaiser O, Groetschel H, Hein-Kropp C, Maschke M, Dimitrova A, Gizewski E, Ziegler W, Karnath HO, Timmann DJournal of Neurophysiology0.0044
    Auditory verbal hallucinations predominantly activate the right inferior frontal areaSommer IE, Diederen KM, Blom JD, Willems A, Kushan L, Slotema K, Boks MP, Daalman K, Hoek HW, Neggers SF, Kahn RSBrain0.0073
    Cortical competition during language discriminationZhao J, Shu H, Zhang L, Wang X, Gong Q, Li PNeuroImage0.0186
    Cerebral asymmetry in children when reading Chinese charactersXue G, Dong Q, Chen K, Jin Z, Chen C, Zeng Y, Reiman EMCognitive Brain Research0.0064
    The functional organisation of the fronto-temporal language system: evidence from syntactic and semantic ambiguityRodd JM, Longe OA, Randall B, Tyler LKNeuropsychologia0.001
    Linguistic prominence and Broca's area: the influence of animacy as a linearization principleGrewe T, Bornkessel I, Zysset S, Wiese R, von Cramon DY, Schlesewsky MNeuroImage0.0024
    Tuning of the human left fusiform gyrus to sublexical orthographic structureBinder JR, Medler DA, Westbury CF, Liebenthal E, Buchanan LNeuroImage0.0013
    The signer and the sign: cortical correlates of person identity and language processing from point-light displaysCampbell R, Capek CM, Gazarian K, MacSweeney M, Woll B, David AS, McGuire PK, Brammer MJNeuropsychologia0.0018
    The integration of prosodic speech in high functioning autism: a preliminary FMRI studyHesling I, Dilharreguy B, Peppe S, Amirault M, Bouvard M, Allard MPLoS ONE0.001
    An event-related fMRI study of explicit syntactic processing of normal/anomalous sentences in contrast to implicit syntactic processingSuzuki K, Sakai KLCerebral Cortex0.0024
    Neural correlates of human action observation in hearing and deaf subjectsCorina D, Chiu YS, Knapp H, Greenwald R, San Jose-Robertson L, Braun ABrain Research0.004
    Neuroimaging reveals dual routes to reading in simultaneous proficient readers of two orthographiesDas T, Padakannaya P, Pugh KR, Singh NCNeuroImage0.0068
    Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and languageWillems RM, Ozyurek A, Hagoort PNeuroImage0.0023
    Bilingual aphasia and language control: a follow-up fMRI and intrinsic connectivity studyAbutalebi J, Rosa PA, Tettamanti M, Green DW, Cappa SFBrain and Language0.015
    Object naming and action-verb generation in Parkinson's disease: a fMRI studyPeran P, Cardebat D, Cherubini A, Piras F, Luccichenti G, Peppe A, Caltagirone C, Rascol O, Demonet JF, Sabatini UCortex0.0012
    The neural substrates of musical memory revealed by fMRI and two semantic tasksGroussard M, Rauchs G, Landeau B, Viader F, Desgranges B, Eustache F, Platel HNeuroImage0.0015
    Neural organization for recognition of grammatical and emotional facial expressions in deaf ASL signers and hearing nonsignersMcCullough S, Emmorey K, Sereno MCognitive Brain Research0.0012
    Disentangling syntax and intelligibility in auditory language comprehensionFriederici AD, Kotz SA, Scott SK, Obleser JHuman Brain Mapping0.0024
    Neural plasticity and treatment-induced recovery of sentence processing in agrammatismThompson CK, den Ouden DB, Bonakdarpour B, Garibaldi K, Parrish TBNeuropsychologia0.0018
    The neural response to changing semantic and perceptual complexity during language processingSharp DJ, Awad M, Warren JE, Wise RJ, Vigliocco G, Scott SKHuman Brain Mapping0.0018
    The inversion effect in visual word form processingKao CH, Chen DY, Chen CCCortex0.0011
    Sex differences in the development of neuroanatomical functional connectivity underlying intelligence found using Bayesian connectivity analysisSchmithorst VJ, Holland SKNeuroImage0.0016
    Dissociating cortical regions activated by semantic and phonological tasks: a FMRI study in blind and sighted peopleBurton H, Diamond JB, McDermott KBJournal of Neurophysiology0.0069
    Mental representations of action: the neural correlates of the verbal and motor componentsPeran P, Demonet JF, Cherubini A, Carbebat D, Caltagirone C, Sabatini UBrain Research0.0025
    Neural correlates of syntactic processing in the nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasiaWilson SM, Dronkers NF, Ogar JM, Jang J, Growdon ME, Agosta F, Henry ML, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini MLThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0015
    Broca's region: linking human brain functional connectivity data and non-human primate tracing anatomy studiesKelly C, Uddin LQ, Shehzad Z, Margulies DS, Castellanos FX, Milham MP, Petrides MEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0018
    Neural substrates of interpreting actions and emotions from body posturesKana RK, Travers BGSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0047
    Cortical activity at rest predicts cochlear implantation outcomeLee HJ, Giraud AL, Kang E, Oh SH, Kang H, Kim CS, Lee DSCerebral Cortex0.0031
    Speaking words in two languages with one brain: neural overlap and dissociationLiu H, Hu Z, Guo T, Peng DBrain Research0.0032
    fMRI characterization of the language formulation areaDien J, Franklin MS, Michelson CA, Lemen LC, Adams CL, Kiehl KABrain Research0.0031
    Context-dependent interpretation of words: evidence for interactive neural processesGennari SP, MacDonald MC, Postle BR, Seidenberg MSNeuroImage0.001
    When do you grasp the idea? MEG evidence for instantaneous idiom understandingBoulenger V, Shtyrov Y, Pulvermuller FNeuroImage0.0018
    Finding your voice: a singing lesson from functional imagingWilson SJ, Abbott DF, Lusher D, Gentle EC, Jackson GDHuman Brain Mapping0.0092
    Cognitive reserve modulates task-induced activations and deactivations in healthy elders, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's diseaseBosch B, Bartres-Faz D, Rami L, Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Fernandez-Espejo D, Junque C, Sole-Padulles C, Sanchez-Valle R, Bargallo N, Falcon C, Molinuevo JLCortex0.0019
    Developmental aspects of language processing: fMRI of verbal fluency in children and adultsGaillard WD, Sachs BC, Whitnah JR, Ahmad Z, Balsamo LM, Petrella JR, Braniecki SH, McKinney CM, Hunter K, Xu B, Grandin CBHuman Brain Mapping0.0047
    Bilateral brain abnormalities associated with dominantly inherited verbal and orofacial dyspraxiaBelton E, Salmond CH, Watkins KE, Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DGHuman Brain Mapping0.0037
    Comparison of block and event-related fMRI designs in evaluating the word-frequency effectChee MW, Venkatraman V, Westphal C, Siong SCHuman Brain Mapping0.0017
    Involvement of the cerebellum in semantic discrimination: an fMRI studyXiang H, Lin C, Ma X, Zhang Z, Bower JM, Weng X, Gao JHHuman Brain Mapping0.0023
    Distinct brain regions associated with syllable and phonemeSiok WT, Jin Z, Fletcher P, Tan LHHuman Brain Mapping0.0032
    Neural basis of the non-attentional processing of briefly presented wordsPeng DL, Xu D, Jin Z, Luo Q, Ding GS, Perry C, Zhang L, Liu YHuman Brain Mapping0.001
    Self-regulation of regional cortical activity using real-time fMRI: the right inferior frontal gyrus and linguistic processingRota G, Sitaram R, Veit R, Erb M, Weiskopf N, Dogil G, Birbaumer NHuman Brain Mapping0.0011
    Not all false memories are created equal: the neural basis of false recognitionGaroff-Eaton RJ, Slotnick SD, Schacter DLCerebral Cortex0.0012
    Processing lexical semantic and syntactic information in first and second language: fMRI evidence from German and RussianRuschemeyer SA, Fiebach CJ, Kempe V, Friederici ADHuman Brain Mapping0.0061
    Syntax production in bilingualsGolestani N, Alario FX, Meriaux S, Le Bihan D, Dehaene S, Pallier CNeuropsychologia0.0127
    The emergence of the unmarked: a new perspective on the language-specific function of Broca's areaGrewe T, Bornkessel I, Zysset S, Wiese R, von Cramon DY, Schlesewsky MHuman Brain Mapping0.0026
    Gender differences in the functional neuroanatomy of emotional episodic autobiographical memoryPiefke M, Weiss PH, Markowitsch HJ, Fink GRHuman Brain Mapping0.0011
    Developmental changes in brain regions involved in phonological and orthographic processing during spoken language processingCone NE, Burman DD, Bitan T, Bolger DJ, Booth JRNeuroImage0.0012
    Brain activation during semantic judgment of Chinese sentences: A functional MRI studyMo L, Liu HL, Jin H, Yang YLHuman Brain Mapping0.0011
    Vascular responses to syntactic processing: event-related fMRI study of relative clausesCaplan D, Vijayan S, Kuperberg G, West C, Waters G, Greve D, Dale AMHuman Brain Mapping0.0016
    Reorganization of functional and effective connectivity during real-time fMRI-BCI modulation of prosody processingRota G, Handjaras G, Sitaram R, Birbaumer N, Dogil GBrain and Language0.0012
    Functional topography of the cerebellum for motor and cognitive tasks: an fMRI studyStoodley CJ, Valera EM, Schmahmann JDNeuroImage0.0017
    Unification of sentence processing via ear and eye: an fMRI studyBraze D, Mencl WE, Tabor W, Pugh KR, Constable RT, Fulbright RK, Magnuson JS, Van Dyke JA, Shankweiler DPCortex0.0044
    Letter processing interferes with inhibition of return: evidence for cortical involvementBowles B, Ferber S, Pratt JCognitive Brain Research0.0018
    Parallel memory systems for talking about location and age in precuneus, caudate and Broca's regionWallentin M, Roepstorff A, Glover R, Burgess NNeuroImage0.0025
    Functional mapping in PD and PSP for sustained phonation and phoneme tasksSachin S, Senthil Kumaran S, Singh S, Goyal V, Shukla G, Mahajan H, Behari MJournal of the Neurological Sciences0.0017
    Neural differences in the processing of semantic relationships across culturesGutchess AH, Hedden T, Ketay S, Aron A, Gabrieli JDSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0025
    Semantic domain-specific functional integration for action-related vs. abstract conceptsGhio M, Tettamanti MBrain and Language0.003
    Patterns of brain reorganization subsequent to left fusiform damage: fMRI evidence from visual processing of words and pseudowords, faces and objectsTsapkini K, Vindiola M, Rapp BNeuroImage0.0015
    Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processingVigneau M, Beaucousin V, Herve PY, Duffau H, Crivello F, Houde O, Mazoyer B, Tzourio-Mazoyer NNeuroImage0.0043
    Bidirectional connectivity between hemispheres occurs at multiple levels in language processing but depends on sexBitan T, Lifshitz A, Breznitz Z, Booth JRThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0022
    The ventral and inferolateral aspects of the anterior temporal lobe are crucial in semantic memory: evidence from a novel direct comparison of distortion-corrected fMRI, rTMS, and semantic dementiaBinney RJ, Embleton KV, Jefferies E, Parker GJ, Ralph MACerebral Cortex0.0011
    Volitional control of attention and brain activation in dual task performanceNewman SD, Keller TA, Just MAHuman Brain Mapping0.0024
    Neural representation of binding lexical signs and words in the episodic buffer of working memoryRudner M, Fransson P, Ingvar M, Nyberg L, Ronnberg JNeuropsychologia0.0041
    Listening to talking faces: motor cortical activation during speech perceptionSkipper JI, Nusbaum HC, Small SLNeuroImage0.003
    Distinct right frontal lobe activation in language processing following left hemisphere injuryVoets NL, Adcock JE, Flitney DE, Behrens TE, Hart Y, Stacey R, Carpenter K, Matthews PMBrain0.0077
    Alterations in functional connectivity for language in prematurely born adolescentsSchafer RJ, Lacadie C, Vohr B, Kesler SR, Katz KH, Schneider KC, Pugh KR, Makuch RW, Reiss AL, Constable RT, Ment LRBrain0.0034
    Neural basis for generalized quantifier comprehensionMcMillan CT, Clark R, Moore P, Devita C, Grossman MNeuropsychologia0.0014
    Modulation of language areas with functional MR image-guided magnetic stimulationAndoh J, Artiges E, Pallier C, Riviere D, Mangin JF, Cachia A, Plaze M, Paillere-Martinot ML, Martinot JLNeuroImage0.0117
    Brain activation and lexical learning: the impact of learning phase and word typeRaboyeau G, Marcotte K, Adrover-Roig D, Ansaldo AINeuroImage0.0013
    Preservation and modulation of specific left hemisphere regions is vital for treated recovery from anomia in strokeFridriksson JThe Journal of Neuroscience0.002
    Cognitive modules utilized for narrative comprehension in children: a functional magnetic resonance imaging studySchmithorst VJ, Holland SK, Plante ENeuroImage0.0027
    Colateralization of Broca's area and the visual word form area in left-handers: fMRI evidenceVan der Haegen L, Cai Q, Brysbaert MBrain and Language0.0042
    Auditory-motor expertise alters "speech selectivity" in professional musicians and actorsDick F, Lee HL, Nusbaum H, Price CJCerebral Cortex0.0017
    Shared syntax in language production and language comprehension--an FMRI studySegaert K, Menenti L, Weber K, Petersson KM, Hagoort PCerebral Cortex0.0018
    The Visual Word Form Area: evidence from an fMRI study of implicit processing of Chinese charactersLiu C, Zhang WT, Tang YY, Mai XQ, Chen HC, Tardif T, Luo YJNeuroImage0.0011
    Neural correlates of syntactic transformationsWartenburger I, Heekeren HR, Burchert F, Heinemann S, De Bleser R, Villringer AHuman Brain Mapping0.0011
    Semantic, factual, and social language comprehension in adolescents with autism: an FMRI studyGroen WB, Tesink C, Petersson KM, van Berkum J, van der Gaag RJ, Hagoort P, Buitelaar JKCerebral Cortex0.0035
    The effects of left or right hemispheric epilepsy on language networks investigated with semantic decision fMRI task and independent component analysisKarunanayaka P, Kim KK, Holland SK, Szaflarski JPEpilepsy & Behavior0.0066
    Interplay between morphology and frequency in lexical access: the case of the base frequency effectVannest J, Newport EL, Newman AJ, Bavelier DBrain Research0.0015
    Role of the striatum in language: Syntactic and conceptual sequencingChan SH, Ryan L, Bever TGBrain and Language0.0065
    Common and distinct neural substrates for the perception of speech rhythm and intonationZhang L, Shu H, Zhou F, Wang X, Li PHuman Brain Mapping0.0036
    The effect of sublexical and lexical frequency on speech production: An fMRI investigationShuster LIBrain and Language0.0014
    Developmental differences in white matter architecture between boys and girlsSchmithorst VJ, Holland SK, Dardzinski BJHuman Brain Mapping0.001
    Semantic adaptation and competition during word comprehensionBedny M, McGill M, Thompson-Schill SLCerebral Cortex0.0011
    The neural correlates of highly iconic structures and topographic discourse in French Sign Language as observed in six hearing native signersCourtin C, Herve PY, Petit L, Zago L, Vigneau M, Beaucousin V, Jobard G, Mazoyer B, Mellet E, Tzourio-Mazoyer NBrain and Language0.0079
    Phonological processing in Chinese-English bilingual biscriptals: an fMRI studyTham WW, Rickard Liow SJ, Rajapakse JC, Choong Leong T, Ng SE, Lim WE, Ho LGNeuroImage0.0064
    Determining hierarchical functional networks from auditory stimuli fMRIPatel RS, Bowman FD, Rilling JKHuman Brain Mapping0.0037
    Activity in preserved left hemisphere regions predicts anomia severity in aphasiaFridriksson J, Bonilha L, Baker JM, Moser D, Rorden CCerebral Cortex0.0028
    Neural correlates of segmental and tonal information in speech perceptionGandour J, Xu Y, Wong D, Dzemidzic M, Lowe M, Li X, Tong YHuman Brain Mapping0.0019
    Magical ideation, creativity, handedness, and cerebral asymmetries: a combined behavioural and fMRI studyBadzakova-Trajkov G, Haberling IS, Corballis MCNeuropsychologia0.003
    Cortical circuits for silent speechreading in deaf and hearing peopleCapek CM, Macsweeney M, Woll B, Waters D, McGuire PK, David AS, Brammer MJ, Campbell RNeuropsychologia0.0014
    Atypical [corrected] participation of visual cortex during word processing in autism: an fMRI study of semantic decisionGaffrey MS, Kleinhans NM, Haist F, Akshoomoff N, Campbell A, Courchesne E, Muller RANeuropsychologia0.0028
    Neural correlates of rhyming vs. lexical and semantic fluencyKircher T, Nagels A, Kirner-Veselinovic A, Krach SBrain Research0.0023
    Abnormalities of language networks in temporal lobe epilepsyPowell HW, Parker GJ, Alexander DC, Symms MR, Boulby PA, Wheeler-Kingshott CA, Barker GJ, Koepp MJ, Duncan JSNeuroImage0.0047
    Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilingualsGuo T, Liu H, Misra M, Kroll JFNeuroImage0.0166
    Early emergence of deviant frontal fMRI activity for phonological processes in poor beginning readersBach S, Brandeis D, Hofstetter C, Martin E, Richardson U, Brem SNeuroImage0.0012
    Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imagingBambini V, Gentili C, Ricciardi E, Bertinetto PM, Pietrini PBrain Research Bulletin0.0019
    Taxing working memory with syntax: bihemispheric modulationsSanti A, Grodzinsky YHuman Brain Mapping0.0013
    Neural correlates of semantic and morphological processing of Hebrew nouns and verbsPalti D, Ben Shachar M, Hendler T, Hadar UHuman Brain Mapping0.0013
    Structural plasticity of the left caudate in bimodal bilingualsZou L, Ding G, Abutalebi J, Shu H, Peng DCortex0.0178
    Comparison of the neural basis for imagined writing and drawingHarrington GS, Farias D, Davis CH, Buonocore MHHuman Brain Mapping0.0016
    The effect of presentation paradigm on syntactic processing: An event-related fMRI studyLee D, Newman SDHuman Brain Mapping0.0017
    The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in language processingBooth JR, Wood L, Lu D, Houk JC, Bitan TBrain Research0.0034
    Inferior frontal gyrus activation predicts individual differences in perceptual learning of cochlear-implant simulationsEisner F, McGettigan C, Faulkner A, Rosen S, Scott SKThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0015
    Absolute pitch--functional evidence of speech-relevant auditory acuityOechslin MS, Meyer M, Jancke LCerebral Cortex0.0036
    Characterizing dynamic functional connectivity in the resting brain using variable parameter regression and Kalman filtering approachesKang J, Wang L, Yan C, Wang J, Liang X, He YNeuroImage0.0015
    Topographical functional connectivity pattern in the perisylvian language networksXiang HD, Fonteijn HM, Norris DG, Hagoort PCerebral Cortex0.007
    Dynamic assignment of neural resources in auditory comprehension of complex sentencesObleser J, Meyer L, Friederici ADNeuroImage0.0011
    Right-hemispheric cortical contributions to language ability in healthy adultsVan Ettinger-Veenstra H, Ragnehed M, McAllister A, Lundberg P, Engstrom MBrain and Language0.01
    A sensitive period for language in the visual cortex: distinct patterns of plasticity in congenitally versus late blind adultsBedny M, Pascual-Leone A, Dravida S, Saxe RBrain and Language0.0105
    Co-localisation of abnormal brain structure and function in specific language impairmentBadcock NA, Bishop DV, Hardiman MJ, Barry JG, Watkins KEBrain and Language0.0052
    Distinction between the literal and intended meanings of sentences: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of metaphor and sarcasmUchiyama HT, Saito DN, Tanabe HC, Harada T, Seki A, Ohno K, Koeda T, Sadato NCortex0.0019
    Functional MRI of conventional and anomalous metaphors in Mandarin ChineseAhrens K, Liu HL, Lee CY, Gong SP, Fang SY, Hsu YYBrain and Language0.0022
    An fMRI investigation of the neural correlates underlying the processing of novel metaphoric expressionsMashal N, Faust M, Hendler T, Jung-Beeman MBrain and Language0.0016
    The anterior superior parietal lobule and its interactions with language and motor areas during writingSegal E, Petrides MEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0012
    Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autismAnderson JS, Druzgal TJ, Froehlich A, DuBray MB, Lange N, Alexander AL, Abildskov T, Nielsen JA, Cariello AN, Cooperrider JR, Bigler ED, Lainhart JECerebral Cortex0.0025
    Increased inferior frontal activation during word generation: a marker of genetic risk for schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder?Costafreda SG, Fu CH, Picchioni M, Kane F, McDonald C, Prata DP, Kalidindi S, Walshe M, Curtis V, Bramon E, Kravariti E, Marshall N, Toulopoulou T, Barker GJ, David AS, Brammer MJ, Murray RM, McGuire PKHuman Brain Mapping0.0032
    Speaking with a single cerebral hemisphere: fMRI language organization after hemispherectomy in childhoodLiegeois F, Connelly A, Baldeweg T, Vargha-Khadem FBrain and Language0.0102
    The Stroop effect in kana and kanji scripts in native Japanese speakers: an fMRI studyCoderre EL, Filippi CG, Newhouse PA, Dumas JABrain and Language0.0031
    Sound naming in neurodegenerative diseaseChow ML, Brambati SM, Gorno-Tempini ML, Miller BL, Johnson JKBrain and Cognition0.0026
    Foreign accent syndrome: a multimodal mapping studyTomasino B, Marin D, Maieron M, Ius T, Budai R, Fabbro F, Skrap MCortex0.0013
    Neuromagnetic measures of word processing in bilinguals and monolingualsWang Y, Xiang J, Vannest J, Holroyd T, Narmoneva D, Horn P, Liu Y, Rose D, deGrauw T, Holland SClinical Neurophysiology0.0051
    Strategies for longitudinal neuroimaging studies of overt language productionMeltzer JA, Postman-Caucheteux WA, McArdle JJ, Braun ARNeuroImage0.0015
    Sound to language: different cortical processing for first and second languages in elementary school children as revealed by a large-scale study using fNIRSSugiura L, Ojima S, Matsuba-Kurita H, Dan I, Tsuzuki D, Katura T, Hagiwara HCerebral Cortex0.0081
    Say it with flowers! An fMRI study of object mediated communicationTylen K, Wallentin M, Roepstorff ABrain and Language0.0036
    Neural responses to meaningless pseudosigns: evidence for sign-based phonetic processing in superior temporal cortexEmmorey K, Xu J, Braun ABrain and Language0.0068
    Word and letter string processing networks in schizophrenia: evidence for anomalies and compensationGriego JA, Cortes CR, Nune S, Fisher JE, Tagamets MABrain and Language0.0041
    Cultural and linguistic influence on neural bases of 'Theory of Mind': an fMRI study with Japanese bilingualsKobayashi C, Glover GH, Temple EBrain and Language0.0023
    Cortical activity to vibrotactile stimulation: an fMRI study in blind and sighted individualsBurton H, Sinclair RJ, McLaren DGHuman Brain Mapping0.0013
    Evidence for bilateral involvement in idiom comprehension: An fMRI studyZempleni MZ, Haverkort M, Renken R, A Stowe LNeuroImage0.0022
    Monitoring in language perception: electrophysiological and hemodynamic responses to spelling violationsvan de Meerendonk N, Indefrey P, Chwilla DJ, Kolk HHNeuroImage0.002
    Neuropsychological deficits and neural dysfunction in familial dyslexiaBrambati SM, Termine C, Ruffino M, Danna M, Lanzi G, Stella G, Cappa SF, Perani DBrain Research0.0011
    Modulation of brain activity during phonological familiarizationMajerus S, Van der Linden M, Collette F, Laureys S, Poncelet M, Degueldre C, Delfiore G, Luxen A, Salmon EBrain and Language0.0027
    Sex differences in lateralization revealed in the posterior language areasKansaku K, Yamaura A, Kitazawa SCerebral Cortex0.0058
    Speech-independent production of communicative gestures: evidence from patients with complete callosal disconnectionLausberg H, Zaidel E, Cruz RF, Ptito ANeuropsychologia0.0043
    Altered effective connectivity within the language network in primary progressive aphasiaSonty SP, Mesulam MM, Weintraub S, Johnson NA, Parrish TB, Gitelman DRJournal of Neuroscience0.0066
    Cycle and gender-specific cerebral activation during a verb generation task using fMRI: comparison of women in different cycle phases, under oral contraception, and menRumberg B, Baars A, Fiebach J, Ladd ME, Forsting M, Senf W, Gizewski ERNeuroscience Research0.0026
    A group independent component analysis of covert verb generation in children: a functional magnetic resonance imaging studyKarunanayaka P, Schmithorst VJ, Vannest J, Szaflarski JP, Plante E, Holland SKNeuroImage0.0036
    Structural correlates of semantic and phonemic fluency ability in first and second languagesGrogan A, Green DW, Ali N, Crinion JT, Price CJCerebral Cortex0.006
    Cortical thickness analysis and optimized voxel-based morphometry in children and adolescents with prelingually profound sensorineural hearing lossLi J, Li W, Xian J, Li Y, Liu Z, Liu S, Wang X, Wang Z, He HBrain Research0.0011
    The role of the ventral and dorsal pathways in reading Chinese characters and English wordsSun Y, Yang Y, Desroches AS, Liu L, Peng DBrain and Language0.0022
    Neural bases of language switching in high and early proficient bilingualsGarbin G, Costa A, Sanjuan A, Forn C, Rodriguez-Pujadas A, Ventura N, Belloch V, Hernandez M, Avila CBrain and Language0.0225
    Effect of syntactic similarity on cortical activation during second language processing: a comparison of English and Japanese among native Korean trilingualsJeong H, Sugiura M, Sassa Y, Haji T, Usui N, Taira M, Horie K, Sato S, Kawashima RHuman Brain Mapping0.0099
    Neural correlates of metaphor processing in schizophreniaKircher TT, Leube DT, Erb M, Grodd W, Rapp AMNeuroImage0.0045
    Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudowords and real words: an event-related fMRI study on auditory lexical decisionXiao Z, Zhang JX, Wang X, Wu R, Hu X, Weng X, Tan LHHuman Brain Mapping0.0016
    Cerebral asymmetries: complementary and independent processesBadzakova-Trajkov G, Haberling IS, Roberts RP, Corballis MCPLoS ONE0.0013
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    What is this?

    This page displays information for an automated Neurosynth meta-analysis of the feature "language". The meta-analysis was performed by automatically identifying all studies in the Neurosynth database that loaded highly on the feature, and then performing meta-analyses to identify brain regions that were consistently or preferentially reported in the tables of those studies.

    What do the "forward inference" and "reverse inference" maps mean?

    For a detailed explanation, please see our Nature Methods paper. In brief, the forward inference map displays brain regions that are consistently active in studies that load highly on the feature "language". Regions with large z-scores are reported more often than one would expect them to be if activation anywhere in the brain was equally likely. Note that this is typically not so interesting, because it turns out that some brain regions are consistently reported in a lot of different kinds of studies (again, see our paper). So as a general rule of thumb, we don't recommend paying much attention to forward inference maps.

    Reverse inference maps are, roughly, maps displaying brain regions that are preferentially active for the feature in question. The reverse inference map for language displays regions that are reported more often in studies that load highly on this feature than in studies that do not load highly on this feature. Most of the time this a much more useful way of thinking about things, since reverse inference maps tell you, in some sense, which brain regions are more diagnostic of the feature in question, and not just which regions are consistently activated in studies associated with that feature.

    How do you identify studies associated with a feature?

    That depends on the kind of feature. At present, most of the features on this website are term-based, meaning that the meta-analyses are based strictly on how frequently a term (in the present case, 'language') was used in an article. By default, we use a threshold of 0.001, meaning that we consider a study to be associated with a feature if it uses that term at least once every 1,000 words on average. For features that aren't term-based, study selection criteria may vary.

    I need more details! How exactly were these maps and data generated?

    If you want to know exactly how things work, we encourage you to clone the Neurosynth python tools from our github repository and work through some of the examples and code provided in the package. Everything you see on this page was generated using the default processing stream, so you should be able to easily generate the exact same images (unless the underlying database has grown or changed) for yourself.