An automated meta-analysis of 311 studies
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    Studies associated with the feature "pain"

    The salient characteristics of the central effects of acupuncture needling: limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network modulationFang J, Jin Z, Wang Y, Li K, Kong J, Nixon EE, Zeng Y, Ren Y, Tong H, Wang Y, Wang P, Hui KKHuman Brain Mapping0.0037
    Feeling anxious: anticipatory amygdalo-insular response predicts the feeling of anxious anticipationCarlson JM, Greenberg T, Rubin D, Mujica-Parodi LRSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0016
    Activation of the hypothalamus characterizes the response to acupuncture stimulation in heroin addictsLiu S, Zhou W, Ruan X, Li R, Lee T, Weng X, Hu J, Yang GNeuroscience Letters0.002
    An fMRI study measuring analgesia enhanced by religion as a belief systemWiech K, Farias M, Kahane G, Shackel N, Tiede W, Tracey IPain0.0165
    Mapping the spinal and supraspinal pathways of dynamic mechanical allodynia in the human trigeminal system using cardiac-gated fMRIMainero C, Zhang WT, Kumar A, Rosen BR, Sorensen AGNeuroImage0.0089
    Using fMRI to dissociate sensory encoding from cognitive evaluation of heat pain intensityKong J, White NS, Kwong KK, Vangel MG, Rosman IS, Gracely RH, Gollub RLHuman Brain Mapping0.0229
    Mechanisms of central neuropathic pain: a combined psychophysical and fMRI study in syringomyeliaDucreux D, Attal N, Parker F, Bouhassira DBrain0.027
    Cortical effects of anticipation and endogenous modulation of visceral pain assessed by functional brain MRI in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controlsSong GH, Venkatraman V, Ho KY, Chee MW, Yeoh KG, Wilder-Smith CHPain0.0129
    Pronociceptive and antinociceptive effects of estradiol through endogenous opioid neurotransmission in womenSmith YR, Stohler CS, Nichols TE, Bueller JA, Koeppe RA, Zubieta JKJournal of Neuroscience0.0137
    Traditional Chinese acupuncture and placebo (sham) acupuncture are differentiated by their effects on mu-opioid receptors (MORs)Harris RE, Zubieta JK, Scott DJ, Napadow V, Gracely RH, Clauw DJNeuroImage0.0086
    EEG source analysis and fMRI reveal two electrical sources in the fronto-parietal operculum during subepidermal finger stimulationStancak A, Polacek H, Vrana J, Rachmanova R, Hoechstetter K, Tintra J, Scherg MNeuroImage0.0053
    Why self-induced pain feels less painful than externally generated pain: distinct brain activation patterns in self- and externally generated painWang Y, Wang JY, Luo FPLoS ONE0.0295
    Differential coding of hyperalgesia in the human brain: a functional MRI studyMaihofner C, Handwerker HONeuroImage0.0137
    Abnormal cortical activity in patients with temporomandibular disorder evoked by cognitive and emotional tasksWeissman-Fogel I, Moayedi M, Tenenbaum HC, Goldberg MB, Freeman BV, Davis KDPAIN0.0104
    Functional MRI of the brain detects neuropathic pain in experimental spinal cord injuryEndo T, Spenger C, Hao J, Tominaga T, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Olson L, Xu XJPain0.0092
    Visualization of painful experiences believed to trigger the activation of affective and emotional brain regions in subjects with low back painShimo K, Ueno T, Younger J, Nishihara M, Inoue S, Ikemoto T, Taniguchi S, Ushida TPLoS ONE0.0335
    Painful laser stimuli induce directed functional interactions within and between the human amygdala and hippocampusLiu CC, Shi CQ, Franaszczuk PJ, Crone NE, Schretlen D, Ohara S, Lenz FANeuroscience0.0047
    BOLD signal in insula is differentially related to cardiac function during compassion meditation in experts vs. novicesLutz A, Greischar LL, Perlman DM, Davidson RJNeuroImage0.0011
    Cerebral activation in patients with somatoform pain disorder exposed to pain and stress: an fMRI studyStoeter P, Bauermann T, Nickel R, Corluka L, Gawehn J, Vucurevic G, Vossel G, Egle UTNeuroImage0.0187
    Separating brain processing of pain from that of stimulus intensityOertel BG, Preibisch C, Martin T, Walter C, Gamer M, Deichmann R, Lotsch JHuman Brain Mapping0.022
    The spinothalamic system targets motor and sensory areas in the cerebral cortex of monkeysDum RP, Levinthal DJ, Strick PLJournal of Neuroscience0.0042
    Evidence of dysfunctional pain inhibition in Fibromyalgia reflected in rACC during provoked painJensen KB, Kosek E, Petzke F, Carville S, Fransson P, Marcus H, Williams SC, Choy E, Giesecke T, Mainguy Y, Gracely R, Ingvar MPain0.0279
    Virtual needle pain stimuli activates cortical representation of emotions in normal volunteersUshida T, Ikemoto T, Tanaka S, Shinozaki J, Taniguchi S, Murata Y, McLaughlin M, Arai YC, Tamura YNeuroscience Letters0.0182
    Odorant differentiated pattern of cerebral activation: comparison of acetone and vanillinSavic I, Gulyas B, Berglund HHuman Brain Mapping0.0014
    Brain source connectivity reveals the visceral pain networkLelic D, Olesen SS, Valeriani M, Drewes AMNeuroImage0.0121
    The role of 'shared representations' in social perception and empathy: an fMRI studyLawrence EJ, Shaw P, Giampietro VP, Surguladze S, Brammer MJ, David ASNeuroImage0.0015
    Interactions of pain intensity and cognitive load: the brain stays on taskSeminowicz DA, Davis KDCerebral Cortex0.0305
    Hypocapnia related changes in pain-induced brain activation as measured by functional MRITerekhin P, Forster CNeuroscience Letters0.006
    The dynamic mechanisms of placebo induced analgesia: Evidence of sustained and transient regional involvementCraggs JG, Price DD, Perlstein WM, Verne GN, Robinson MEPain0.0106
    Visceral and cutaneous pain representation in parasylvian cortexStrigo IA, Albanese MC, Bushnell MC, Duncan GHNeuroscience Letters0.0073
    Activation of central sympathetic networks during innocuous and noxious somatosensory stimulationMaihofner C, Seifert F, Decol RNeuroImage0.0084
    Source imaging of the cortical 10 Hz oscillations during cooling and warming in humansStancak A, Mlynar J, Polacek H, Vrana JNeuroImage0.0014
    Leaving a bad taste in your mouth but not in my insulavon dem Hagen EA, Beaver JD, Ewbank MP, Keane J, Passamonti L, Lawrence AD, Calder AJSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0013
    Dynamic EEG-informed fMRI modeling of the pain matrix using 20-ms root mean square segmentsBrinkmeyer J, Mobascher A, Warbrick T, Musso F, Wittsack HJ, Saleh A, Schnitzler A, Winterer GHuman Brain Mapping0.0052
    Do words hurt? Brain activation during the processing of pain-related wordsRichter M, Eck J, Straube T, Miltner WH, Weiss TPain0.0289
    The compassionate brain: humans detect intensity of pain from another's faceSaarela MV, Hlushchuk Y, Williams AC, Schurmann M, Kalso E, Hari RCerebral Cortex0.0356
    Organization of felt and seen pain responses in anterior cingulate cortexMorrison I, Downing PENeuroImage0.0184
    Gender differences in brain activity evoked by muscle and cutaneous pain: a retrospective study of single-trial fMRI dataHenderson LA, Gandevia SC, Macefield VGNeuroImage0.0363
    Brain activity related to temporal summation of C-fiber evoked painStaud R, Craggs JG, Robinson ME, Perlstein WM, Price DDPain0.0208
    Pain enhances functional connectivity of a brain network evoked by performance of a cognitive taskSeminowicz DA, Davis KDJournal of Neurophysiology0.0145
    Different pain, different brain: thalamic anatomy in neuropathic and non-neuropathic chronic pain syndromesGustin SM, Peck CC, Wilcox SL, Nash PG, Murray GM, Henderson LAThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0206
    Altered somatosensory processing in trigeminal neuralgiaBlatow M, Nennig E, Sarpaczki E, Reinhardt J, Schlieter M, Herweh C, Rasche D, Tronnier VM, Sartor K, Stippich CHuman Brain Mapping0.009
    Cortical and subcortical connectivity changes during decreasing levels of consciousness in humans: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using propofolMhuircheartaigh RN, Rosenorn-Lanng D, Wise R, Jbabdi S, Rogers R, Tracey IThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0019
    The human parietal operculum. II. Stereotaxic maps and correlation with functional imaging resultsEickhoff SB, Amunts K, Mohlberg H, Zilles KCerebral Cortex0.0027
    Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracismOnoda K, Okamoto Y, Nakashima K, Nittono H, Yoshimura S, Yamawaki S, Yamaguchi S, Ura MSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0069
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging response to experimental pain in drug-free patients with schizophreniade la Fuente-Sandoval C, Favila R, Gomez-Martin D, Pellicer F, Graff-Guerrero APsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging0.0142
    Anticipatory brainstem activity predicts neural processing of pain in humansFairhurst M, Wiech K, Dunckley P, Tracey IPain0.0238
    An fMRI case report of photophobia: activation of the trigeminal nociceptive pathwayMoulton EA, Becerra L, Borsook DPain0.0061
    Painful muscle stimulation preferentially activates emotion-related brain regions compared to painful skin stimulationTakahashi K, Taguchi T, Tanaka S, Sadato N, Qiu Y, Kakigi R, Mizumura KNeuroscience Research0.0326
    Intrinsic functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray, a resting fMRI studyKong J, Tu PC, Zyloney C, Su TPBehavioural Brain Research0.01
    CNS animal fMRI in pain and analgesiaBorsook D, Becerra LNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews0.011
    Human SII and posterior insula differently encode thermal laser stimuliFrot M, Magnin M, Mauguiere F, Garcia-Larrea LCerebral Cortex0.0093
    Pain attenuation through mindfulness is associated with decreased cognitive control and increased sensory processing in the brainGard T, Holzel BK, Sack AT, Hempel H, Lazar SW, Vaitl D, Ott UCerebral Cortex0.0141
    Cerebral regulation of facial expressions of painKunz M, Chen JI, Lautenbacher S, Vachon-Presseau E, Rainville PThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0249
    Isolating the modulatory effect of expectation on pain transmission: a functional magnetic resonance imaging studyKeltner JR, Furst A, Fan C, Redfern R, Inglis B, Fields HLJournal of Neuroscience0.0164
    Brain activity associated with expectancy-enhanced placebo analgesia as measured by functional magnetic resonance imagingKong J, Gollub RL, Rosman IS, Webb JM, Vangel MG, Kirsch I, Kaptchuk TJJournal of Neuroscience0.0162
    Itch and motivation to scratch: an investigation of the central and peripheral correlates of allergen- and histamine-induced itch in humansLeknes SG, Bantick S, Willis CM, Wilkinson JD, Wise RG, Tracey IJournal of Neurophysiology0.0013
    Touch or pain? Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical fMRI activity following brief mechanical stimuliLui F, Duzzi D, Corradini M, Serafini M, Baraldi P, Porro CAPain0.0106
    Beyond patient reported pain: perfusion magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates reproducible cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical painHoward MA, Krause K, Khawaja N, Massat N, Zelaya F, Schumann G, Huggins JP, Vennart W, Williams SC, Renton TFPLoS ONE0.0222
    Distinct and shared cerebral activations in processing innocuous versus noxious contact heat revealed by functional magnetic resonance imagingTseng MT, Tseng WY, Chao CC, Lin HE, Hsieh STHuman Brain Mapping0.0056
    Ipsilateral cortical representation of tactile and painful information in acallosal and callosotomized subjectsDuquette M, Rainville P, Alary F, Lassonde M, Lepore FNeuropsychologia0.0086
    Acupuncture needling sensation: the neural correlates of deqi using fMRIAsghar AU, Green G, Lythgoe MF, Lewith G, MacPherson HBrain Research0.0169
    Inner experience of pain: imagination of pain while viewing images showing painful events forms subjective pain representation in human brainOgino Y, Nemoto H, Inui K, Saito S, Kakigi R, Goto FCerebral Cortex0.0332
    The impact of Alzheimer's disease on the functional connectivity between brain regions underlying pain perceptionCole LJ, Gavrilescu M, Johnston LA, Gibson SJ, Farrell MJ, Egan GFEuropean Journal of Pain0.0178
    NMDA-receptor antagonist and morphine decrease CRPS-pain and cerebral pain representationGustin SM, Schwarz A, Birbaumer N, Sines N, Schmidt AC, Veit R, Larbig W, Flor H, Lotze MPain0.0156
    Individual sensitivity to pain expectancy is related to differential activation of the hippocampus and amygdalaZiv M, Tomer R, Defrin R, Hendler THuman Brain Mapping0.022
    Temporal changes in cortical activation during conditioned pain modulation (CPM), a LORETA studyMoont R, Crispel Y, Lev R, Pud D, Yarnitsky DPAIN0.0263
    Functional dissociation of the frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortices in empathy for painGu X, Liu X, Guise KG, Naidich TP, Hof PR, Fan JThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0226
    Somatosensory cortical plasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome treated by acupunctureNapadow V, Liu J, Li M, Kettner N, Ryan A, Kwong KK, Hui KK, Audette JFHuman Brain Mapping0.004
    Interictal dysfunction of a brainstem descending modulatory center in migraine patientsMoulton EA, Burstein R, Tully S, Hargreaves R, Becerra L, Borsook DPLoS ONE0.0065
    Perceived controllability modulates the neural response to painSalomons TV, Johnstone T, Backonja MM, Davidson RJJournal of Neuroscience0.0185
    Mechanical noxious stimuli cause bilateral activation of parietal operculum in callosotomized subjectsFabri M, Polonara G, Quattrini A, Salvolini UCerebral Cortex0.0129
    A functional magnetic resonance imaging study on the neural mechanisms of hyperalgesic nocebo effectKong J, Gollub RL, Polich G, Kirsch I, Laviolette P, Vangel M, Rosen B, Kaptchuk TJJournal of Neuroscience0.0168
    Representation of pain and somatic sensation in the human insula: a study of responses to direct electrical cortical stimulationOstrowsky K, Magnin M, Ryvlin P, Isnard J, Guenot M, Mauguiere FCerebral Cortex0.0113
    Altered cerebral response to noxious heat stimulation in patients with somatoform pain disorderGundel H, Valet M, Sorg C, Huber D, Zimmer C, Sprenger T, Tolle TRPain0.0314
    Cultural influences on neural basis of intergroup empathyCheon BK, Im DM, Harada T, Kim JS, Mathur VA, Scimeca JM, Parrish TB, Park HW, Chiao JYNeuroImage0.011
    Phantom limb pain, cortical reorganization and the therapeutic effect of mental imageryMacIver K, Lloyd DM, Kelly S, Roberts N, Nurmikko TBrain0.0177
    Executive function in chronic pain patients and healthy controls: different cortical activation during response inhibition in fibromyalgiaGlass JM, Williams DA, Fernandez-Sanchez ML, Kairys A, Barjola P, Heitzeg MM, Clauw DJ, Schmidt-Wilcke TThe Journal of Pain0.008
    Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncturePariente J, White P, Frackowiak RS, Lewith GNeuroImage0.0095
    SUNCT: bilateral hypothalamic activation during headache attacks and resolving of symptoms after trigeminal decompressionSprenger T, Valet M, Platzer S, Pfaffenrath V, Steude U, Tolle TRPain0.0099
    Brain mechanisms supporting discrimination of sensory features of pain: a new modelOshiro Y, Quevedo AS, McHaffie JG, Kraft RA, Coghill RCJournal of Neuroscience0.0106
    Aversion-related circuitry in the cerebellum: responses to noxious heat and unpleasant imagesMoulton EA, Elman I, Pendse G, Schmahmann J, Becerra L, Borsook DThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0054
    Changes in brain function and morphology in patients with recurring herpes simplex virus infections and chronic painVartiainen N, Kallio-Laine K, Hlushchuk Y, Kirveskari E, Seppanen M, Autti H, Jousmaki V, Forss N, Kalso E, Hari RPain0.0343
    Mirrored, imagined and executed movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb painDiers M, Christmann C, Koeppe C, Ruf M, Flor HPain0.0143
    Power estimation predicts specific function action of acupuncture: an fMRI studyLiu P, Zhou G, Yang X, Liu J, Sun J, Dong M, Yuan K, Zhang Y, Qin W, Tian JMagnetic Resonance Imaging0.0027
    PET-based investigation of cerebral activation following intranasal trigeminal stimulationHummel T, Oehme L, van den Hoff J, Gerber J, Heinke M, Boyle JA, Beuthien-Baumann BHuman Brain Mapping0.0046
    Brain activation upon selective stimulation of cutaneous C- and Adelta-fibersWeiss T, Straube T, Boettcher J, Hecht H, Spohn D, Miltner WHNeuroImage0.0034
    Cortical activation by tactile and painful stimuli in hemispherectomized patientsOlausson H, Ha B, Duncan GH, Morin C, Ptito A, Ptito M, Marchand S, Bushnell MCBrain0.0118
    Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: a [11C]DASB PET studyKupers R, Frokjaer VG, Erritzoe D, Naert A, Budtz-Joergensen E, Nielsen FA, Kehlet H, Knudsen GMNeuroImage0.0298
    Viewing facial expressions of pain engages cortical areas involved in the direct experience of painBotvinick M, Jha AP, Bylsma LM, Fabian SA, Solomon PE, Prkachin KMNeuroImage0.0256
    Prescription opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brainYounger JW, Chu LF, D'Arcy NT, Trott KE, Jastrzab LE, Mackey SCPAIN0.0088
    Brain activity for spontaneous pain of postherpetic neuralgia and its modulation by lidocaine patch therapyGeha PY, Baliki MN, Chialvo DR, Harden RN, Paice JA, Apkarian AVPain0.0234
    Neural activation during experimental allodynia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging studyMaihofner C, Schmelz M, Forster C, Neundorfer B, Handwerker HOEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0155
    Functional imaging of sensory decline and gain induced by differential noxious stimulationStammler T, De Col R, Seifert F, Maihofner CNeuroImage0.0045
    Empathy examined through the neural mechanisms involved in imagining how I feel versus how you feel painJackson PL, Brunet E, Meltzoff AN, Decety JNeuropsychologia0.0162
    Changes in brain gray matter due to repetitive painful stimulationTeutsch S, Herken W, Bingel U, Schoell E, May ANeuroImage0.0326
    Secure attachment partners attenuate neural responses to social exclusion: an fMRI investigationKarremans JC, Heslenfeld DJ, van Dillen LF, Van Lange PAInternational Journal of Psychophysiology0.0032
    Laser-evoked potential P2 single-trial amplitudes covary with the fMRI BOLD response in the medial pain system and interconnected subcortical structuresMobascher A, Brinkmeyer J, Warbrick T, Musso F, Wittsack HJ, Saleh A, Schnitzler A, Winterer GNeuroImage0.0105
    Differential brain activation associated with laser-evoked burning and pricking pain: An event-related fMRI studyVeldhuijzen DS, Nemenov MI, Keaser M, Zhuo J, Gullapalli RP, Greenspan JDPain0.0316
    Influence of body position on cortical pain-related somatosensory processing: an ERP studySpironelli C, Angrilli APLoS ONE0.0164
    Attention to pain localization and unpleasantness discriminates the functions of the medial and lateral pain systemsKulkarni B, Bentley DE, Elliott R, Youell P, Watson A, Derbyshire SW, Frackowiak RS, Friston KJ, Jones AKEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0169
    Shared brain activity for aesthetic and moral judgments: implications for the Beauty-is-Good stereotypeTsukiura T, Cabeza RSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0012
    Reduced brainstem inhibition during anticipated pelvic visceral pain correlates with enhanced brain response to the visceral stimulus in women with irritable bowel syndromeBerman SM, Naliboff BD, Suyenobu B, Labus JS, Stains J, Ohning G, Kilpatrick L, Bueller JA, Ruby K, Jarcho J, Mayer EAJournal of Neuroscience0.0056
    Acupuncture modulates resting state connectivity in default and sensorimotor brain networksDhond RP, Yeh C, Park K, Kettner N, Napadow VPain0.0061
    Brain correlates of stress-induced analgesiaYilmaz P, Diers M, Diener S, Rance M, Wessa M, Flor HPain0.0249
    A meta-analysis of instructed fear studies: implications for conscious appraisal of threatMechias ML, Etkin A, Kalisch RNeuroImage0.0012
    Context conditioning and extinction in humans: differential contribution of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortexLang S, Kroll A, Lipinski SJ, Wessa M, Ridder S, Christmann C, Schad LR, Flor HEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0012
    Acute prefrontal cortex TMS in healthy volunteers: effects on brain 11C-alphaMtrp trappingSibon I, Strafella AP, Gravel P, Ko JH, Booij L, Soucy JP, Leyton M, Diksic M, Benkelfat CNeuroImage0.001
    Three systems of insular functional connectivity identified with cluster analysisDeen B, Pitskel NB, Pelphrey KACerebral Cortex0.0011
    Cerebral and cerebrospinal processes underlying counterirritation analgesiaPiche M, Arsenault M, Rainville PJournal of Neuroscience0.0141
    Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxietyOchsner KN, Ludlow DH, Knierim K, Hanelin J, Ramachandran T, Glover GC, Mackey SCPain0.021
    An fMRI study of caring vs self-focus during induced compassion and prideSimon-Thomas ER, Godzik J, Castle E, Antonenko O, Ponz A, Kogan A, Keltner DJSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0021
    Intracerebral pain processing in a Yoga Master who claims not to feel pain during meditationKakigi R, Nakata H, Inui K, Hiroe N, Nagata O, Honda M, Tanaka S, Sadato N, Kawakami MEuropean Journal of Pain0.0075
    Affect regulation and pain in borderline personality disorder: a possible link to the understanding of self-injuryNiedtfeld I, Schulze L, Kirsch P, Herpertz SC, Bohus M, Schmahl CBiological Psychiatry0.0073
    Social contracts and precautions activate different neurological systems: an fMRI investigation of deontic reasoningFiddick L, Spampinato MV, Grafman JNeuroImage0.001
    Unconditioned responses and functional fear networks in human classical conditioningLinnman C, Rougemont-Bucking A, Beucke JC, Zeffiro TA, Milad MRBehavioural Brain Research0.0013
    Empathy and judging other's pain: an fMRI study of alexithymiaMoriguchi Y, Decety J, Ohnishi T, Maeda M, Mori T, Nemoto K, Matsuda H, Komaki GCerebral Cortex0.015
    Localization of pain-related brain activation: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging dataDuerden EG, Albanese MCHuman Brain Mapping0.005
    Gastric fundic distension activates fronto-limbic structures but not primary somatosensory cortex: a functional magnetic resonance imaging studyLadabaum U, Roberts TP, McGonigle DJNeuroImage0.0032
    Xenon-induced changes in CNS sensitization to painAdolph O, Koster S, Georgieff M, Bader S, Fohr KJ, Kammer T, Herrnberger B, Gron GNeuroImage0.0027
    Cognitive modulation of emotion anticipationErk S, Abler B, Walter HEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0014
    Motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain. Correlations between analgesic effect and hemodynamic changes in the brain. A PET studyPeyron R, Faillenot I, Mertens P, Laurent B, Garcia-Larrea LNeuroImage0.0158
    Another major function of the anterior cingulate cortex: the representation of requirementsWeston CSNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews0.003
    An fMRI study on the interaction and dissociation between expectation of pain relief and acupuncture treatmentKong J, Kaptchuk TJ, Polich G, Kirsch I, Vangel M, Zyloney C, Rosen B, Gollub RLNeuroImage0.0116
    Existential neuroscience: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of neural responses to reminders of one's mortalityQuirin M, Loktyushin A, Arndt J, Kustermann E, Lo YY, Kuhl J, Eggert LSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0073
    Your flaws are my pain: linking empathy to vicarious embarrassmentKrach S, Cohrs JC, de Echeverria Loebell NC, Kircher T, Sommer J, Jansen A, Paulus FMPLoS ONE0.0025
    Structural and functional neuroimaging studies of the suicidal brainDesmyter S, van Heeringen C, Audenaert KProgress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry0.0014
    Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRINapadow V, Makris N, Liu J, Kettner NW, Kwong KK, Hui KKHuman Brain Mapping0.0045
    Mirroring others' emotions relates to empathy and interpersonal competence in childrenPfeifer JH, Iacoboni M, Mazziotta JC, Dapretto MNeuroImage0.0013
    Is there a core neural network in empathy? An fMRI based quantitative meta-analysisFan Y, Duncan NW, de Greck M, Northoff GNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews0.0015
    The motor system shows adaptive changes in complex regional pain syndromeMaihofner C, Baron R, DeCol R, Binder A, Birklein F, Deuschl G, Handwerker HO, Schattschneider JBrain0.0044
    High frequency rTMS modulation of the sensorimotor networks: behavioral changes and fMRI correlatesYoo WK, You SH, Ko MH, Tae Kim S, Park CH, Park JW, Hoon Ohn S, Hallett M, Kim YHNeuroImage0.0024
    Long-term depression of pain-related cerebral activation in healthy man: an fMRI studyRottmann S, Jung K, Vohn R, Ellrich JEuropean Journal of Pain0.0155
    Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy personsCasey KL, Geisser M, Lorenz J, Morrow TJ, Paulson P, Minoshima SPAIN0.0121
    A role for the brainstem in central sensitisation in humans. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imagingZambreanu L, Wise RG, Brooks JC, Iannetti GD, Tracey IPain0.0118
    fMRI reveals how pain modulates visual object processing in the ventral visual streamBingel U, Rose M, Glascher J, Buchel CNeuron0.0218
    The cerebral representation of temporomandibular joint occlusion and its alternation by occlusal splintsLotze M, Lucas C, Domin M, Kordass BHuman Brain Mapping0.0012
    Brain networks underlying perceptual habituation to repeated aversive visceral stimuli in patients with irritable bowel syndromeLabus JS, Naliboff BD, Berman SM, Suyenobu B, Vianna EP, Tillisch K, Mayer EANeuroImage0.0023
    Empathic neural reactivity to noxious stimuli delivered to body parts and non-corporeal objectsCostantini M, Galati G, Romani GL, Aglioti SMEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0225
    Cerebellar responses evoked by nociceptive leg withdrawal reflex as revealed by event-related FMRIDimitrova A, Kolb FP, Elles HG, Maschke M, Forsting M, Diener HC, Timmann DJournal of Neurophysiology0.0021
    Brain dynamics for perception of tactile allodynia (touch-induced pain) in postherpetic neuralgiaGeha PY, Baliki MN, Wang X, Harden RN, Paice JA, Apkarian AVPain0.0162
    Turning on the alarm: the neural mechanisms of the transition from innocuous to painful sensationJohnstone T, Salomons TV, Backonja MM, Davidson RJNeuroImage0.0215
    fMRI reveals distinct CNS processing during symptomatic and recovered complex regional pain syndrome in childrenLebel A, Becerra L, Wallin D, Moulton EA, Morris S, Pendse G, Jasciewicz J, Stein M, Aiello-Lammens M, Grant E, Berde C, Borsook DBrain0.0134
    Right-lateralized pain processing in the human cortex: an FMRI studySymonds LL, Gordon NS, Bixby JC, Mande MMJournal of Neurophysiology0.0202
    Neuronal correlates of symptom formation in functional somatic syndromes: a fMRI studyLandgrebe M, Barta W, Rosengarth K, Frick U, Hauser S, Langguth B, Rutschmann R, Greenlee MW, Hajak G, Eichhammer PNeuroImage0.0035
    Flexible cerebral connectivity patterns subserve contextual modulations of painPloner M, Lee MC, Wiech K, Bingel U, Tracey ICerebral Cortex0.026
    Regulation of anterior insular cortex activity using real-time fMRICaria A, Veit R, Sitaram R, Lotze M, Weiskopf N, Grodd W, Birbaumer NNeuroImage0.0014
    Somatotopic organisation of the human insula to painful heat studied with high resolution functional imagingBrooks JC, Zambreanu L, Godinez A, Craig AD, Tracey INeuroImage0.0086
    Does it look painful or disgusting? Ask your parietal and cingulate cortexBenuzzi F, Lui F, Duzzi D, Nichelli PF, Porro CAJournal of Neuroscience0.0135
    Modulation of pain processing in hyperalgesia by cognitive demandWiech K, Seymour B, Kalisch R, Stephan KE, Koltzenburg M, Driver J, Dolan RJNeuroImage0.022
    Somatotopic organization of human somatosensory cortices for pain: a single trial fMRI studyBingel U, Lorenz J, Glauche V, Knab R, Glascher J, Weiller C, Buchel CNeuroImage0.0121
    Learning affective values for faces is expressed in amygdala and fusiform gyrusPetrovic P, Kalisch R, Pessiglione M, Singer T, Dolan RJSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0018
    Acute opioid effects on human brain as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imagingLeppa M, Korvenoja A, Carlson S, Timonen P, Martinkauppi S, Ahonen J, Rosenberg PH, Aronen HJ, Kalso ENeuroImage0.0031
    Limitation of physical performance in a muscle fatiguing handgrip exercise is mediated by thalamo-insular activityHilty L, Jancke L, Luechinger R, Boutellier U, Lutz KHuman Brain Mapping0.0031
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    The hybrid GLM-ICA investigation on the neural mechanism of acupoint ST36: an fMRI studyLiu P, Zhou G, Zhang Y, Dong M, Qin W, Yuan K, Sun J, Liu J, Liang J, von Deneen KM, Liu Y, Tian JNeuroscience Letters0.009
    Brain responses to facial expressions of pain: emotional or motor mirroring?Budell L, Jackson P, Rainville PNeuroImage0.0241
    Evidence for a different role of the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex for social reactive aggression: An interactive fMRI studyLotze M, Veit R, Anders S, Birbaumer NNeuroImage0.0019
    Brain processing during mechanical hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndrome: a functional MRI studyMaihofner C, Forster C, Birklein F, Neundorfer B, Handwerker HOPain0.0124

    What is this?

    This page displays information for an automated Neurosynth meta-analysis of the feature "pain". The meta-analysis was performed by automatically identifying all studies in the Neurosynth database that loaded highly on the feature, and then performing meta-analyses to identify brain regions that were consistently or preferentially reported in the tables of those studies.

    What do the "forward inference" and "reverse inference" maps mean?

    For a detailed explanation, please see our Nature Methods paper. In brief, the forward inference map displays brain regions that are consistently active in studies that load highly on the feature "pain". Regions with large z-scores are reported more often than one would expect them to be if activation anywhere in the brain was equally likely. Note that this is typically not so interesting, because it turns out that some brain regions are consistently reported in a lot of different kinds of studies (again, see our paper). So as a general rule of thumb, we don't recommend paying much attention to forward inference maps.

    Reverse inference maps are, roughly, maps displaying brain regions that are preferentially active for the feature in question. The reverse inference map for pain displays regions that are reported more often in studies that load highly on this feature than in studies that do not load highly on this feature. Most of the time this a much more useful way of thinking about things, since reverse inference maps tell you, in some sense, which brain regions are more diagnostic of the feature in question, and not just which regions are consistently activated in studies associated with that feature.

    How do you identify studies associated with a feature?

    That depends on the kind of feature. At present, most of the features on this website are term-based, meaning that the meta-analyses are based strictly on how frequently a term (in the present case, 'pain') was used in an article. By default, we use a threshold of 0.001, meaning that we consider a study to be associated with a feature if it uses that term at least once every 1,000 words on average. For features that aren't term-based, study selection criteria may vary.

    I need more details! How exactly were these maps and data generated?

    If you want to know exactly how things work, we encourage you to clone the Neurosynth python tools from our github repository and work through some of the examples and code provided in the package. Everything you see on this page was generated using the default processing stream, so you should be able to easily generate the exact same images (unless the underlying database has grown or changed) for yourself.